Tuesday, 21 June 2011


The development of information technology has penetrated into all walks of life. No exception in the health field, particularly in hospital management. Initially, hospitals rely on manual power either to save the patient database, inventory, payroll and employee physicians, document creation, administration and others.
Seaat this, the hospital relies on various advances in information technology to facilitate administrative management at the hospital, ease of administration and out of the patient, cashier management, facilitate patient database search, inventory records either hospital facilities and medicines, to facilitate the payroll accounting system, and so on.
Printing patient card, certificate and registration papers are also made easier by the presence of information technology. Use of the system are also further facilitate inter-network doctor or divisions within the hospital to exchange data, since each database will be easily accessible from all computers at the hospital, without having to walk long distances to the archive room and without having to laboriously search for documents in a closet, because it was facilitated by computers and networks. Moreover, when memnggunakan wireless networks or so-called wireless cable, hospitals do not have to painstakingly smoothed milling because the cable that provides live access point in every corner of the room.
The existence of the internet also allows doctors and hospitals to publicize the hospital via the internet. Even over the internet, the hospital can provide a variety of important facilities such as online consultation, examination registration, online payment, and so on.
E-Health is the application of information and communication technology which includes the whole range of functions that affect the health sector. E-Health has a broad meaning not just the Internet or any dotcom. E-Health is an Enterprise solution in the health field because it involves many parties, ranging from people to Drugs or Pharmaceutical Manufacturers.
E-Health in a variety of things can improve access to health services and improve the quality and effectiveness of services provided. Application or e-Health solutions include products, systems and services become more simple with Internet-based applications. E-Health includes applications for professionals and health authorities are better than private health system for the public and patients. An example is health information networks, electronic medical records, telemedicine services, personal wearable and portable communicable systems, health portals, and many other information and communications technology that aims to help the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, health monitoring, and lifestyle management.
2. Telemedicine
Telemedicine is a health service that is done from a distance. Telemidicine is the transfer of electronic medical data from one location to another. Telemedicine is the practice of health communication using audio, visual and data. including treatment, diagnosis, consultation and treatment and medical data exchange and scientific discussions remotely. Based on the above notions, we can understand that the scope of telemedicine is quite broad, covering the provision of health services (including clinical, educational and administrative services) remotely, via the transfer of information (audio, video, graphics), using telecommunications devices (audio -two-way interactive video, computer, and telemetry) with the involvement of doctors, patients and other parties. Simply put, telemedicine actually been applied when there is discussion between two doctors discuss patients' problems over the phone.
Benefits of telemedicine include into the three aspects are interrelated to one another in which patients, physicians and hospitals. Direct benefits for patients are:
· Accelerate the access of patients to referral centers.
· Easy to get help while waiting for help directly from private doctors.
· Patients still feel close to home where family and friends can provide direct support.
¨ Reduce mental stress or tension that is felt in the workplace.
· Carefully select among the patients who need to be taken to the hospital and patients who did not need hospital care will remain at home.
Examples of applications used in telemedicine:
· Network of Asia-Pacific Medical Information via ETS-V (amine - Asia Pacific Medical Information Network via ETS-V).
After four years of operation (1992-1996) was 80% of traffic is the traffic of non-clinical issues such as administration, hospital management, and business logistics. Hence, amines recommended that the design of telemedicine in the future take into account the traffic-non-clinical traffic like this. Real results are amines have successfully saved many patients, especially in developing countries in Asia Pacific.
· Telemedicine via ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) - NASA.
ACTS is one of the pioneers in applying telemedicine via satellite. One experiment conducted telemedicine is telemammography, which demonstrate delivery of high-resolution mammography images from rural to urban uses satellite access network.
Mammography is a radiological image that can help detect breast cancer at an earlier stage. Unfortunately it takes an experienced radiologist to interpret these images are not always available in rural areas or small towns. It connects the screening experiments in a small town or village with a medical institution in the big city. The success of this program requires integration between satellite and terrestrial infrastructure in medical school or hospital campuses, pemoresan images, patient data security, as well as the software that controls the screening process. One of the difficulties encountered in telemammografi these are the images produced are large. For direct digital mammography techniques, 20:1 compression is needed so that images can be transmitted is less than 1 minute by using a T1. But this much compression at the expense of some image data. Therefore these experiments suggest the development of image compression techniques in addition to repair a system that is able to transmit images more quickly.
3. TeleHealth
There are two technologies in telehealth, namely: real-time store and forward technology.
1. Store and convey Technology (store and forward)
Example is an image obtained from the electronic technology are like x rays, can be sent to a specialist for interpretation. The images are moving. Radiology, dermatology, pathology is a highly visible example of specialization using this technology.
2. Technology real time
Real time is the technology that makes patients and providers interact in the same time. Many telecommunication tools that facilitate two-way communication in real time using telehealth technology. Realtime technology can also create a tool to menstransimisikan yng pictures from different places. For example the camera to observe the state of the client. Realtime communication technology to facilitate two-way audio and video, which can be used in telehealth
As a combination of realtime and robotics, a surgeon can perform operations by means of special operations from a distance. This procedure is called telepresence. Telepresence be one subset of telehealth.
One example is the homecare telehealth program. The system provides interactive audio and video to the relationship between the elderly in nursing homes and telehealth. Nurses enter patient data electronically and analyzed, if necessary to do a visit, nurses will visit patients.
Telenursing is the practice of nursing in cyberspace and is used in the framework of providing nursing care between patients and nurses register. Telenursing also be interpreted as the use of telemedicine technology in providing nursing care and nursing practice.
Telenursing is the attempted use of information technology in providing nursing services that are part of health care, where there is much physical distance between nurses and patients, or among some nurses. Telenursing as part of telehealth and parts associated with the application of medical and non medical fields such as telediagnosis, telekonsultasi and telemonitoring.
Through telenursing, nurses are able to do the monitoring, education, follow-up, assessment and data collection, intervention, providing support to families and innovative multidisciplinary treatment and collaboration. Moreover, in practice telenursing, nurses perform advanced assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation of care outcomes, and nurses also use technology such as internet, computer, telephone, digital assessment tools, and telemonitoring equipment audio-video systems, satellite and communications systems the other. The use of computers and information technology to support nurses and patients with information more effectively. In order telenursing efficiency and effectiveness, between nurses and patients are directly connected using an electronic transmission system.
Telenursing can reduce hospital days in the hospital so the impact on the reduced cost of care (effective and efficient in terms of health costs), reduce the number of visits to health care, an increasing number of nursing services in the amount of coverage is more extensive and equitable, can be utilized in the field of nursing education ( model of distance learning) and development of health informatics-based nursing research and improve nurse and patient satisfaction of nursing services provided and to improve the quality of care at home (home care). In addition telenursing also improve safety (safety) nurses and clients.

5.      MSCT-128 Slice

Slice MSCT-128 is capable of detecting the cell size of 5 mm and record the heartbeat in a state of arrhythmia. MSCT has evolved from the slice (piece) 16, 64, and the last is 128. Slice MSCT-128 was introduced at Hospital Pantai Indah Kapuk (RSPIK) around mid-July 2010. Coinciding with the 8th anniversary of the hospital and conducting seminars layman entitled "Your heart Sehatkan & Early Detection of Heart Healthy with Multi Slice CT - 128".
Unlike previous generations, MSCT - 128 Slice has some advantages that are useful for diagnostic affairs. This tool can make the pieces very thin and quickly take a picture (from head to toe in people with a height of 2 meters in just 10 seconds). So that is very fast and accurate if the whole body should conduct the examination.
This tool can generate a very clear image detail. Boundaries and differences in the structure of normal and abnormal tissue can be clearly visible so it is useful to detect the spread of tumors. In fact, the different functions and characteristics of the organ tissue structures can be colored and can be made image display 3 and 4 dimensions. So the diagnosis who had only limited diagnostic organ morphology, with this tool, it can also be used to assess functional.
Moreover, MSCT - 128 Slice can make detailed images of organs of blood vessel structure clearly. This is very useful in the assessment of blood vessels throughout the body's organs. This tool has an accuracy and sharpness in detecting abnormalities of the organs better, faster and precise dibading previous generations. Radiation protection tool is also quite good with the Adaptive Dose Shield that can reduce 50% of radiation received by patients. In addition, radiation dose can be controlled and tailored to the needs.
MSCT cavity - 128 Slice quite extensive and wide. So that could be used for obese patients (weight 300 kg), and an uncooperative patient (child, the patient is unconscious). Moreover, the examination took place very quickly.
So also in the cardiac examination, with state of the pulse is rapid or irregular (arrhythmia) which has been a problem on the previous generation tools, no longer an issue. Because these tools can more quickly take a picture of the heart rate. Taking pictures with your heart rate adjusts so that the state of arrhythmia is not a constraint. Also do not need to wait for a heart rate below 70 beats / minute.

Ablation technology has now been utilized in medicine in Indonesia. This technology is very useful to tackle heart rhythm disorder.

Through three-dimensional mapping of cardiac structures, this technology can systematically map the heart's electrical conduction so that can know the location of the source of abnormal electrical flow with more precision. Ablation navigation system consists of two types, namely with the Carto XP Navigation and EnSite NavX navigation.

Muhammad Munawar doctors working in hospitals located in Jalan TB Simatupang Jakarta's claim that the disorder is an abnormal heart rhythm heart beats too fast or too slow on a person. Normally, a person's heart rate that is 60-100 beats / sec. According to him, the success rate reached 95 percent ablation technique. Even other advantages, patients do not need drugs anymore.


Tranducer is an additional tool that is used to check the disease by using a computer. With the computer, doctors can use it as a tool for the examination of the patient. And now the computer has many uses in support for science as well as medical examination tool.

With the help of hand-held instrument called a transducer is placed on the leg and moved back and forth over the area of ​​influence. Tranducer issued ultrasond waves and detects their echoes, then these echoes bounce off the turn by the vein wall and blood cells by the tranducer. Then the computer will reverse the echoes of sound waves into an image on a computer screen, where the doctor will be able to see blood flow in the legs of patients.

With the help of these tranducer, we can know the human bloodstream, possibly tranducer can also be used for other examinations, such as in human organs, genetic abnormalities, and so on.

If with the help of the tool can be used for other tests doctors can be more helpful. But all that still needs further research to prove.

To that end, physicians must understand, develop and effectively as possible can take advantage of IT. Technological developments are also useful and beneficial to the medical world. If the world of IT continues to be developed then it is very helpful for the doctors in their profession

Air Abrasion technology including modern dentistry. Air abrasion is not a new technology in dentistry. Treating teeth with water abration first attempted in 1940, and commercial machine called Airdent was marketed by SS White. But at that time, the tool is known to be very noisy and frightening so as not to attract attention among dentists.

Air abrasion of yore are now found with a lot of improvements. Coupled with major advances in dental care and complementary with more modern techniques and materials are available now.

Basically it works by blowing 27 micron aluminum oxide powder using compressed air. Some of the existing system which adds water to the powder and the others tried to inertkan gas than air pressure. When the powder is flowing in the teeth, literally would attenuate the tooth surface with a soft but efficient.

Air abrasion is not recommended to remove old silver fillings, but it can remove the white fillings is quite good, and is ideal for teeth that have not been filled, as in children. The worst thing is that the powder blew into his mouth, but most people are not bothered by a sense of gritty. When they rinse, all back to normal.

The advantage of using water abrasion is a patient such as the absence of nearby noise, and the total absence of vibration. Unlike the dental drill, air abrasion does not cause bad teeth can not burn hot. In addition, the abrasion of water can be used to gently remove the field very early decay before the hole can even be seen. Many of the smaller hole can be filled early in this way, rather than waiting until the hole is much larger, or worse, cut a lot of healthy teeth to get to a small hole.

The use of radioactive isotopes in medicine has been started in 1901 by Henri Danlos the use of radium for the treatment of diseases of the skin tubercolusis. But who is considered father of Nuclear Medicine is the George C. de HEVESSY, it was he who laid the foundation principles of the natural radioisotope tracer using Pb-212. With the discovery of artificial radioisotopes, then the natural radioisotopes no longer used.
Artificial radioisotopes are widely used in the early development of nuclear medicine is the I-131. However, its use has now been pushed by Tc-99m apart because it is ideal in terms of radiation protection and image formation can also be obtained easily and relatively cheap price. However, I-131 is still very necessary for diagnostics and therapeutics, particularly cancer of the thyroid gland.
The development of nuclear medicine are made possible very rapidly thanks to the support of the development of instrumentation technology for image-making, especially with the use of computers for data processing so that the instrumentation system that used to only use regular radiation detector with a simple electronic systems, has now evolved into sophisticated equipment and the gamma camera positron camera which can display the image of the tool body, both two-dimensional and three-dimensional and static or dynamic.
Today, applications of nuclear techniques in the health sector has contributed very valuable in establishing the diagnosis and therapy of various kinds of diseases. Various medical disciplines such as internal medicine, neurological pathology, cardiology, and so have taken advantage of these nuclear techniques.
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear Medicine is the branch of medicine that uses open-source radiation from the core disintegration of artificial radionuclides, to study the changes in physiology, anatomy and biochemistry, so it can be used for diagnostic purposes, therapeutics and medical research. In nuclear medicine, radioisotopes can be incorporated into the patient's body (in vivo study) or only reacted only with biological materials including blood, gastric fluid, urine, etc., are taken from the patient who is better known as the study of in-vitro (in glass experiment ).
In-vivo studies, after the radioisotope can be inserted into the patient's body through the mouth or injection or inhaled through the nose and so the information can be obtained from the patient can be:
a. Image or images of organs or body parts of patients that can be obtained with the help of equipment called a gamma camera or positron camera (imaging techniques)
b. Kinetics curves of radioisotopes in a particular organ or body part and the numbers that describe the accumulation of radioisotopes in certain organs or body parts in addition to images or images obtained with a gamma camera or positron camera.
c. Radioactivity contained in samples of biological material (blood, urine etc.) taken from the patient's body, chopped with the instrument coupled to the radiation detector (non-imaging techniques).
The data obtained with imaging techniques and non-imaging provides information on organ function were examined. Imaging (imaging) in nuclear medicine in some respects different from the imaging in radiology.
In-vitro studies, taken from the patient's body a certain amount of biological material such as 1 ml of blood. Excerpts of biological material is then reacted with a substance that has been marked with radioisotopes. Tests carried out with the aid of a gamma radiation detector coupled with an instrumentation system. Such studies are usually conducted to determine the content of certain hormones in the blood of patients such as insulin, thyroxine, and so on.
Nuclear medicine examination of much help in supporting the diagnosis of various diseases, such as coronary heart disease, thyroid disease, impaired renal function, determine the stage of disease by detecting cancers spread to bones, detecting bleeding in the digestive tract of food and determine its location, and many more that can be diagnoses obtained from the application of nuclear technology which is currently growing rapidly.
Besides helping the establishment of diagnosis, nuclear medicine also plays a role in certain disease therapies, such as thyroid cancer, thyroid hiperfungsi stubborn on the provision of non-radiation drugs, red blood cell malignancies, inflammation (inflammation) joint that is difficult to control with therapy regular medicines. If for purposes of diagnosis, radioisotopes are given in very small doses, then in radioisotope therapy deliberately administered in large doses, especially in the treatment of cancer tissue in order to eliminate the cells that make up the cancer tissue.
In Indonesia, nuclear medicine were introduced in the late 1960s, after Indonesia's first atomic reactor started operating in Bandung. Some Indonesian experts assisted by experts from abroad pioneered the establishment of a nuclear medicine unit at the Centre for Research and Development of Nuclear Engineering at Bandung. This unit is the forerunner of the Nuclear Medicine Unit of Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran. Following the subsequent units in Jakarta (RSCM, RSPP, Gatot Subroto Hospital) and Surabaya (RS Sutomo). In the 1980's established nuclear medicine units in the next Sardjito Hospital (Yogyakarta) RS Kariadi (Semarang), Heart Hospital We hope (Jakarta) and RS Fatmawati (Jakarta). Currently in Indonesia there are 15 hospitals that perform nuclear medicine service using gamma cameras, in addition there are 2 pieces of longer hospital which only operate a kidney penatah better known by the name Renograf
Information technology in health or medical computer also has shown a very significant role to help the human soul, and research in the field of medicine. Computers are used to diagnose the disease, finding the right medicine, as well as analyzing human organs inside are difficult to see. Information technology in the form of System Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is useful to draw the structure of the brain and take pictures of all the body parts that do not move by using X-rays. As for the move using the Dynamic Spatial system reconstructor (DSR) which can be used to view images from different angles organs.

Computerized Axial Tomography

Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT), is a computer system that uses gas to detect radioactive particles that the body shown in pictures. Another form is Position Emission Tomography (PET) is also a computer system that can display images that use radioactive isotopes. Additionally Nuclear magnetic resonance is a technique to diagnose a way memagnetikkan nucleus (central atom) of hydrogen atoms.

Currently there have been recent findings that DNA computers, which can diagnose the disease while providing medication. Ehud Shapiro and his team from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, has made DNA computers that mempu ultrakecil diagnose and treat certain cancers. Components of a computer is the genetic material DNA of known sequence basanya. As it is known that the gene sequence is intrinsically has the inherent ability to process information like a computer. Therefore, the trillions of biomolecules machine that works with more than 99.8% accuracy, it can be packaged in a drop of solution. Computers use a strand of DNA nucleotides as input data, and molecular biology as a solution of the active data can result in system logical control of biological processes.


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